Archive for the ‘Curriculum’ Category

Perspective Images of Curriculum (Schubert)

The purpose of this chapter is to sketch with broad strokes the academic area that, during the past century, has come to be known as the curriculum field. While some who technically differentiate terms such as field, discipline, and area of study debate whether curriculum really is a field (see Westbury and Steimer, 1971; Jackson, 1980), use of the term curriculum field is widespread. This usage generally denotes the range of theorists, practitioners, and researchers who devote most of their professional time and energy to proposing, developing, studying, defending, and/or criticizing the content and experiences taught and learned in schools and other educative situations. What kinds of images of curriculum exist in the curriculum field? How is curriculum related to other subfields of education? What subfields of specialized concern exist within the curriculum field? What resources are available to enable one to find one’s way around the curriculum field? These are the main questions that this chapter is designed to address.

A quick survey of a dozen curriculum books would be likely to reveal a dozen different images or characterizations of curriculum. It might even reveal more, because the same author may use the term in different ways. Authors may intentionally provide different images of curriculum to portray what others have said or to represent different conceptualizations of curriculum; or they may do so without realization and thus provide inconsistency or contradiction. I use the terms image and characterization rather than definition because they denote a broader conceptualization than the label for a thing. To make curriculum an object reduces its richness and rules out presentation of certain key conceptualizations that are essential to an understanding of the field.
To analyze and discuss all of the images that have been advanced would be a massive undertaking, since more than eleven hundred curriculum books have been written in the present century (Schubert, 1980a, p. 11). Moreover, the scholarly worth of such an endeavor would be dubious. What can be done more economically is to categorize major conceptions of curriculum, with examples, intents, and criticisms of each.*
Curriculum as Content or Subject Matter
The most traditional image of curriculum stems back to antiquity and the seven liberal arts, usually divided into the trivium (grammar, rhetoric, and dialectic) and the quadrivium (arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, and music). Curriculum is equated with the subjects to be taught.
Examples. Today, if one asks administrators of secondary or elementary schools to describe their curriculum, they usually expound a litany of subjects taught and times that they are offered. In my years as an elementary school teacher, “curriculum night” was an evening early in the school year in which teachers explained the curriculum to parents. Most parents actually expected a rendition of the daily schedule and an explanation of how this routine made sense as an overall program of subject matter.

Intent. Educators who use this image intend to explicate clearly the network of subjects taught, interpretations given to those subjects, prerequisite knowledge for studying certain subjects, and a rationale for the ways in which all subjects at a particular level of school fit together and provide what is needed at that level. Needs may be defined by programmatic labels such as college preparatory, commercial curriculum, general studies,
advanced placement, remedial, honors, and so on.

Criticism. The exclusive focus on subjects does not account for other planned or unplanned activities that are a major part of students’ experiences in schools. In fact, it only accounts for topics to be covered and neglects such important dimensions as cognitive development, creative expression, and personal growth. There is much more involved in planning than the subject to be taught. Instructional strategies, sequencing
procedures, the scope of the subject, motivational devices, evaluation instruments, and interpretations of content are but a sample of planned attributes that make an immense difference in the character of a subject. Unplanned aspects such as the student’s prior knowledge, student attitude about the subject and learning, teacher attitude and mode of interaction with students, students’ interactions with each other, and messages about learning conveyed by the social, organizational, and physical features of the learning environment are powerful forces in what is learned. Likewise, the many informal social interactions among
students in corridors, on playgrounds, and during lunch and free periods, as well as the formal organizations and events that make up extracurricular features of education, are major factors in what is learned. Thus, an image that equates curriculum with subject matter or formal content is easy to use but it simplifies and limits the problem too much. Schools provide learnings for students that go far beyond the confines of subject matter. Such learnings, as well as those unintended and embedded in the culture of schooling, must be included to give us a comprehensive view of curriculum.
Curriculum as a Program of Planned Activities
By focusing on a comprehensive view of all activities planned for delivery to students, this image of curriculum incorporates scope and sequence, interpretation and balance of subject matter, motivational devices, teaching techniques, and anything else that can be planned in advance. This view of curriculum as a plan is embraced by Saylor, Alexander, and Lewis (1981). The nature of a plan can be quite wide ranging. One way to view the extensiveness of this concept is from two extremes, one viewing curriculum as a written document (Beauchamp, 1981) and the other accepting plans that are in the minds of educators but remain unwritten. P. H. Taylor (1970), for example, has carefully observed teacher planning of courses and has emphasized that while it may involve written notes, much teaching is based on a curriculum of unwritten plans.
Examples. Written documents range from daily lesson plans to curriculum guides. Anyone who has passed through a teacher education program knows what a lesson plan is and can quickly recall its familiar categories: general purpose, specific goals, materials needed, procedures, evaluation, and so on. Curriculum guides are usually constructed locally by school administrators and/or districtwide committees of teachers, administrators, and sometimes outside consultants and community representatives. Some guides are rather brief and give the “bare-bones” structure of what is to be covered in each subject at given grade levels. Others are exceedingly elaborate and provide background information for teachers, and suggest teaching strategies, arrangements for learning environments, supplementary materials, outside resources, and modes of evaluation. Larger school districts often have sizable central office staffs and produce many curriculum guides for different subject matter areas. University libraries compile collections of these guides to supplement teacher education programs. Projects are now available that provide curriculum guides on microfiche. Teachers’ manuals for published textbooks and other instructional materials serve as another version of curriculum guides. Although they usually do not unify curriculum areas into an overall programmatic thrust, as do locally designed guides, they provide a great deal of extra material for teachers to use as they organize their classroom and think about the specifics of teaching a lesson or unit. Some school systems legislate specific requirements that teachers must cover a certain number of activities from the guide or be at a certain page or chapter in the textbooks by specified dates. Others recognize curriculum guides and textbooks as helpful resources rather than mandates to follow to the letter. Those who have taught for several years know that planning is a great deal more than that which is written down. I recall, for example, team teaching situations in which teachers would discuss possible courses of action and arrive at a plan. The plan would be implemented, each teacher doing his or her part, and nothing would be written down. Teachers will sometimes get bright ideas on the spur of the moment or will have to change plans in midstream because of altered circumstances (an unannounced assembly, student lack of responsiveness, unavailable equipment). Teachers may do a great deal of planning while driving to and from work or when
pondering the next day just before falling asleep at night. These and similar activities are all plans, yet they may never be written.
Intent. The common thread in all of these notions of planning, written or unwritten, is that they are planned activities. As in the case with elaborate curriculum guides, there is more provided than activities; however, the end of planning is to see that certain desired activities are delivered to students. Granted, all these plans have purposes for which the activities are the vehicle. Yet it is the activity-what students do-that is the curriculum.
Criticism. To characterize curriculum as planned activities is to place major emphasis on outward appearance rather than inner development. It values outcomes and neglects the learning process. Emphasis on activities implies that more careful attention should be given to ends than means. For example, many teachers and school districts are so intent on seeing that certain activities are implemented that the activities become ends in themselves. There is a tendency to lose sight of purposes that the activities serve, such as their impact on the learning process or personal meaning. Attention to prespecified activities obscures consequences that cannot be readily anticipated. For example, twenty children who engage in the same creative writing activity have twenty quite different responses. Thus, it may be more sensible to focus
on what each student experiences than on the planned activity itself.
Curriculum as Intended Learning Outcomes
Some authors (Johnson, 1977a; Posner, 1982) contend that curriculum should not be the activities but should focus directly on the intended learning outcomes. This shifts emphasis from means to ends. Intended learning outcomes are a convenient way to specify purposes. Purposes no longer remain stated in such global rhetoric as, “an appreciation for our cultural heritage.” Instead, a structured series or sequence of learning outcomes is set forth; all activities, teaching, environmental design, and the like serve the acquisition of specified ends. Intended learning outcomes are not precisely equated with curriculum; rather curriculum is the realm of intentionality that fosters the intended learning outcomes.
Examples. An intended learning outcome in a high school social studies class may be to identify the arguments for and against the buildup of nuclear armaments. The curriculum design would detail all the materials, plans, and arrangements that would enable students to do this. The process of determining, designing, and realizing intents would, of course, involve a great deal of analysis of contextual and philosophical factors. Intent. The purpose is to be explicit and defensible regarding what is offered to
students.
Criticisms. Focus on intended learning outcomes as the prime factor in curriculum draws attention away from the unintended outcomes, which many claim are an exceedingly powerful force in what students learn in schools. These are outcomes of the culture of schooling or hidden curriculum. While all the students in a class may demonstrate that they have acquired the intended learning outcome, the consequences of its acquisition may be quite different from one student to another. Knowledge that helps one student when it combines with the rest of his or her cognitive and affective repertoire may be enlightening, while the same intended learning outcome may indeed be harmful to another student. Less harmful, but still quite powerful, is the impact that differing organizational environments and instructional strategies can have on an outcome. The same intended outcome may become quite different when taught by an inquiry, simulation, and lecture method. The central point here is that intended results may be very different from actual ones, even within a group of students who seem to have acquired the intended outcomes.
Curriculum as Cultural Reproduction
Some hold that curriculum in any society or culture is and should be a reflection of that culture. The job of schooling is to reproduce salient knowledge and values for the succeeding generation. The community, state, or nation takes the lead in identifying the skills, knowledge, and appreciations to be taught. It is the job of professional educators to see that they are transformed into a curriculum that can be delivered to children and youth.
Examples. The patriotic events of national history; the dominant economic system whether communistic, capitalistic, or another; the cultural conventions, mores, and folkways; the religious values in parochial schools or in public schools where no separation of church and state exists.

Intent. In advanced industrial societies, it is impossible for parents who have specialized jobs themselves to teach adequately all the complicated capabilities that their children need. Moreover, in earning a living, they scarcely have the time to do so, even if they do have the knowledge, inclination, and ability. Thus, they need special institutions to reproduce the culture for their children.

Criticisms. To hold that curriculum should be uncritical cultural reproduction assumes that the status quo is good enough (i.e., that cultural and social improvements are not needed). As argued by Apple (1979), Anyon (1980), Giroux (1983), and others, the problem runs much deeper than simply asserting that the status quo is perpetuated; they identify massive inequities associated with prolonging unjust social hierarchies. The wealthy and powerful remain in control of middle and working classes; they, along with the poor and destitute, remain unable to grow and develop as human beings who can govern their own lives. It is, of course, a mistake to view impositions of cultural reproduction as uncontested (Apple and Weis, 1983). Oppressed persons find ways to resist. Yet, when educators tacitly assume that schools are powerless to influence social or cultural change, they perpetuate existing injustices. The question is not whether schools alone can change a society, but whether they, as one of many institutions in a society, can exert forces for greater freedom, equality, and justice. To claim that institutions within a society are less powerful than the society itself misses the point that a society is a composite of institutions and individuals who all contribute to the character and dynamic of the whole.
Curriculum as Experience
The idea that curriculum should be a set of activities or predetermined ends was resisted by John Dewey, who advocated a means-ends continuum. This position holds that educational means and ends are inseparable parts of a single process: experience. To attend to one’s experience reflectively and to strive continuously to anticipate and monitor the consequences of one’s thought and action relative to the good that they bring is a continuously evolving curriculum. The teacher is a facilitator of personal growth, and the curriculum is the process of experiencing the sense of meaning and direction that ensues from teacher and student dialogue.

Examples. Learners are seen as vast reservoirs of potential. In his or her own way, eachblearner is deemed unique and worthwhile. Teachers and learners discuss the importance of determining worthwhile activities; however, the notion of activity is not as central to this definition of curriculum as is the concept of experience. Ralph Tyler (1949) contrasted course content and activities with learning experience. Learning experience is the curriculum that students actually come to know or realize. It is a function of purposes; content or activity; organizational patterns of persons; instructional materials; instructional practices; evaluation modes; and hopes, desires, and philosophies of educators. Yet learning experience is to be
equated with none of these, for it is fashioned finally when it meets the experiential repertoire of the learner. The same plans will often have quite different consequences when actualized as experience amid the knowledge, skills, attitudes, and values of different learners.

Intent. Curriculum as actual learning experiences is an attempt to grasp what is learned rather than to take for granted that the planned intents are in fact learned. Experiences are created as learners reflect on the processes in which they engage. Curriculum is meaning experienced by students, not facts to be memorized or behaviors to be demonstrated. While ideals are indeed indispensable in giving direction to action, they are fashioned as teachers and learners interact amid a milieu and with subject matter that gives substance to learning. Four commonplaces of curricula. experience are set forth by Schwab (1973): teacher, learner, subject matter, and milieu. Whenever a change occurs in any one or a combination of these commonplaces, and such alterations are always occurring, the curricular consequences change that meet the learner and
his or her storehouse of experience. Thus, ends and means are united in constant interaction. The perceptive educator, as collaborator with the learner, must artistically facilitate the learner’s search for experiences that contribute to personal growth.

Criticism. While curriculum as personal experience and growth sounds wonderful in principle, it is impossible in practice. Given the realities of the teaching situation, how can one high school teacher who meets 150 or more students per day enter into dialogue with each one and work out a curriculum for personal growth? Although a bit more feasible, how can an elementary school teacher do this with 30 students? Even when considering a small enough group, say, less than 10 students, one might be able to plan a personalized curriculum with each, but it is impossible to get inside of each student’s being well enough to know the consequences of teacher, other learners, subject matter, and milieu on his or her personality, character, outlook, beliefs, behavior, and so on. For the same reasons, this conception of
curriculum is so broad that it defies research. How could one ever study the short- and longterm consequences of the totality of school experience on the whole of the prior experience of the learner?

Curriculum as Discrete Tasks and Concepts
The curriculum is seen as a set of tasks to be mastered, and they are assumed to lead to a prespecified end. Usually, that end has specific behavioral interpretation such as learning a new task or performing an old one better. This approach derives from training programs in business, industry, and the military.

Examples. Acquisition of rules of grammar, mathematical algorithms, penmanship style, or phonics rules at the elementary school level and in occupational training, learning a new system of filing for an office, a new maneuver with a military vehicle, the operation of a new machine for folding envelopes in a stationery factory, or running a program with a microcomputer are carefully specified at a defined level of performance. Potential learners are pretested to assess the level of knowledge of the desired skill that they possess and perhaps their aptitude for acquiring it as well. Minutely detailed sequences of learning tasks are identified that build the larger skill; these are implemented and, eventually, posttests are
conducted.

Intent. Just as a skill may be defined in terms of its constituent behaviors, knowledge and appreciation can be analyzed in terms of the affective, cognitive, psychomotor, and social concepts that characterize it.

Criticism. While task analysis may be highly appropriate for learning certain mechanical activities, it is very limited. The whole of most tasks, even mechanical ones, is greater than the sum of its parts. Therefore, a simple additive set of procedures may produce the appearance of a skill well learned, but it will not provide for variation that is so essential in our changing world. This requires a knowledge ofprinciples, not isolated skills or even concepts. Even more difficulty is found in the assertion that more sophisticated knowledge and appreciation can be derived from training. The ancient Greeks called this procedural knowledge techne, and they contrasted it to arete which refers to the quest for excellence, virtue, and goodness. Although concept analyses are available on the appreciation of, say, impressionist painting, and they may convey certain rules or criteria to observe, they could never provide an adequate substitute for the educated imagination that comes from careful study and considerable experience with that which is to be discussed or appraised.

Curriculum as an Agenda for Social Reconstruction
Dare the School Build a New Social Order? This is the title of a book by George S. Counts (1932b), one of the fathers of the social reconstructionist position in education. Championed by Theodore Brameld in the 1940s and 1950s, and inspired by many of Dewey’s works, this view of curriculum holds that schools should provide an agenda of knowledge and values that guides students to improve society and the cultural institutions, beliefs, and activities that support it.

Examples. Application may begin within the school itself. Students are given a major role in planning and implementing life in the school. They address what the purpose of schools should be, and they develop and defend a design to implement that purpose. Another variation involves students in the identification and study of major national and international issues, the result of which would be activist participation. Still another interpretation is that educators and students would determine utopian plans for a better world. In any of these alternatives, the purpose of schooling is to improve the social order (e.g., to prepare students who enter the world with a fervor to provide greater racial equity or more empathic understanding among
wealthy, middle, working, and poor classes of people).

Intent. Based on the assumptions that no culture or society is perfect and that the purpose of education is to improve it, the cultural reconstructionist sets out to build a better society. The orientation may involve considerable input from students, or it may be dominated by educator decisions about how students should be taught to reconstruct society. The methodology may range from teaching students desirable changes that should be made to equipping them with critical thinking abilities and a desire to ask and act on the question: What should be changed, how, and why? In either case, the curriculum is an agenda for
cultural reconstruction.
Criticism. It is doubtful that schools, large but not particularly influential institutions, are politically powerful enough to exert major social changes. If they would become powerful enough to do so, the desire of educators to foist their political beliefs on children and youth is tantamount to indoctrination of a very serious kind. It sparks the memory of youth in totalitarian nations who are brainwashed to support a revolution or to spy on their own families and report infractions of rules. Even in less severe cases, the question arises as to the right of educators to play deity in the dictating of social change.

Curriculum as “Currere”
One of the most recent positions to emerge on the curriculum horizon is to emphasize the verb form of curriculum, namely, currere. Instead of taking its interpretation from the race course etymology of curriculum, currere refers to the running of the race and emphasizes the individual’s own capacity to reconceptualize his or her autobiography. Illustrated by Pinar and Grumet (1976), the individual seeks meaning amid the swirl of present events, moves historically into his or her own past to recover and reconstitute origins, and imagines and creates possible directions of his or her own future. Based on the sharing of autobiographical accounts with others who strive for similar understanding, the curriculum becomes a reconceiving of one’s perspective on life (Grumet, 1980). It also becomes a social process
whereby individuals come to greater understanding of themselves, others, and the world through mutual reconceptualization. The mutuality involves not only those who are in immediate proximity but occurs through the acquisition of extant knowledge and acquaintance with literary and artistic expression. The central focus, however, is autobiographical. The curriculum is the interpretation of lived experiences.

Examples. Students write autobiographical accounts that focus on striving to know who, how, and why they have developed as they have. Teachers and/or other students respond through written or oral comment on the writing. Dialogue ensues and creates reconceived visions of self, others, and the world. Relevant literature is introduced, and the curriculum becomes the process of reconceptualization.

Intent. The purpose of reconceptualization is individual emancipation from the constraints of unwarranted convention, ideology, and psychological unidimensionality. It is to explore other provinces of meaning, to envision possibilities, and to fashion new directions for oneself, others, and the world, through mutual reconceptualization.
Criticism. This striving for self-knowledge cannot be done in schools by teachers and students. It requires the intense expertise of a psychiatrist, psychoanalyst, or other professional therapist. Even if it could be done in schools, it should not be, for it goes far beyond the purpose of schools to transmit knowledge, skills, and values of a culture. Children and youth need objective knowledge. Self-understanding is a parental and personal responsibility, not that of the government or other agencies that sponsor schools.

Continuing the Images Debate
Each of the images of curriculum just presented ends with a critical assessment. You should not be swayed unduly by the argument advanced, and you certainly should not conclude that because of the existing disagreement none of the positions have merit. The statements of intent and the examples make clear some of the positive features of each image. The reader is challenged to imagine a continued debate. How would a proponent of each of the images respond to the criticisms raised? How might the conflicting positions be productively analyzed? One way is to identify the metaphors that they utilize. In a brief but powerful article, Kliebard (1972) emphasizes that we think in metaphors. He characterizes three root metaphors found in curriculum literature and practice: production, growth, and journey. Production provides an industrial model that envisions the student as raw material to be transformed by a skilled technician who uses rigorously planned specifications, avoids waste, and carefully sees to it that the raw materials are used for the purposes that best fit them. The growth metaphor perceives the teacher as an insightful gardener, who carefully gets to know the unique character of the plants (students) and nurtures their own special kind of flowering. In the travel metaphor, the teacher is a tour guide who leads students through a terrain rich in
knowledge, skills, ideas, appreciations, and attitudes. The tour guide knows that each traveler will respond differently to the trip because of his or her unique configuration of background, ability, interests, aptitudes, and purposes.
The etymological origins of curriculum as the course of a chariot race might lead one to believe that a travel metaphor is closest to the original. The original, however, is not sacred, and we must be willing to alter meanings as knowledge and ideas improve. This notwithstanding, I encourage you to return to each of the characterizations and ask whether it is best represented by the production, growth, travel metaphor, or perhaps a different metaphor that you invent. Perhaps, too, each is a combination of several metaphors. It might be the case that the original journey metaphor is sufficiently comprehensive to incorporate each of
Kliebard’s metaphors. While it is obvious, for example, that travel is a journey from place to place, growth is a journey in which the self expands, differentiates, and becomes more complexly integrated (Hopkins, 1954). Production is a journey from raw material to sophisticated product.
Just as we have emphasized that curriculum knowledge as a whole is problematic, is it also contributory to conceptual richness to have several extant images of curriculum? Might this invigorate debate? Or, as some suggest (Johnson, 1977b), is it stupid to posit the existence of a field of study when its members cannot agree on the definition of what is studied? Might a reasonable compromise be to argue that different images are needed for different purposes? As you look back at the characterizations provided, can you state a practical situation in which each of the images would be useful? In other words, might each image be appropriate to some aspects of the curriculum realm but not to others? Here, the parable of the blind men and the elephant seems fitting. Each of several blind men touched a different part of the elephant; one grasped the leg and concluded that an elephant was like a tree, another examined the trunk and described the elephant as a large snake, another touched an ear and thought of a huge fan, still another felt the tusks and likened the elephant to a sharp spear. Could it be that staunch advocates of one image of curriculum
are only examining one of many facets of the entire realm? Should we continue to cultivate a variety of images in an effort to move closer to an understanding of the whole picture of curriculum? Or do some images contradict and rule out the use of others.

Schubert, W. H. (1986). Curriculum: Perspective, paradigm and possibility. New York: Macmillan

METAPHORS We Live: Concept We Live By (George Lakoff and Mark Johnson)

Metaphor is for most people a device of the poetic imagination and the rhetorical flourish – a matter of extraordinary rather than ordinary language. Moreover, metaphor is typically viewed as characteristic of language alone, a matter of words rather than thought or action. For this reason, most people think they can get along perfectly well without metaphor. We have found, on the contrary, that metaphor is pervasive in
everyday life, not just in language but in thought and action. Our ordinary conceptual system, in terms of which we both think and act, is fundamentally metaphorical in nature.

The concepts that govern our thought are not just matters of the intellect. They also govern our everyday functioning, down to the most mundane details. Our concepts structure what we perceive, how we get around in the world, and how we relate to other people. Our conceptual system thus plays a central role in defining our everyday realities. If we are right in suggesting that our conceptual system is largely metaphorical, then the way we think, what we experience, and what we do every day is very much a matter of metaphor.

But our conceptual system is not something we are normally aware of. In most of the little things we do every day, we simply think and act more or less automatically along certain lines. Just what these lines are is by no means obvious. One way to find out is by looking at language. Since communication is based on the same conceptual system that we use in thinking and acting, language is an important source of evidence
for what that system is like.

Primarily on the basis of linguistic evidence, we have found that most of our ordinary conceptual system is metaphorical in nature. And we have found a way to begin to identify in detail just what the metaphors are that structure how we perceive, how we think, and what we do.

To give some idea of what it could mean for a concept to be metaphorical and for such a concept to structure an everyday activity, let us start with the concept ARGUMENT and the conceptual metaphor ARGUMENT IS WAR. This metaphor is reflected in our everyday language by a wide variety of expressions:
ARGUMENT IS WAR
Your claims are indefensible.
He attacked every weak point in my argument. His criticisms were right on target.
I demolished his argument.

I’ve never won an argument with him. You disagree? Okay,Shoot!

If you use that strategy, he’ll wipe you out. He shot down all of myarguments.
It is important to see that we don’t just talk about arguments in terms of war. We can actually win or lose arguments. We see the person we are arguing with as an opponent. We attack his positions and we defend our own. We gain and lose ground. We plan and use strategies. If we find a position indefensible, we can abandon it and take a new line of attack. Many of the things we do in arguing are partially structured by the concept of war. Though there is no physical battle, there is a verbal battle, and the structure of an argument-attack, defense, counterattack, etc.-reflects this. It is in this sense that the ARGUMENT IS WAR metaphor is one that we live by in this culture; it structures the actions we perform in arguing. Try to imagine a culture where arguments are not viewed in terms of war, where no one wins or loses, where there is no sense of attacking or defending, gaining or losing ground. Imagine a culture where an argument is viewed as a dance, the participants are seen as performers, and the goal is to perform in a balanced and aesthetically pleasing way. In such a culture, people would view arguments differently, experience them differently, carry them out differently, and talk about them differently. But we would probably not view them as arguing at all: they would simply be doing something different. It would seem strange even to call what they were doing “arguing.” Perhaps the most neutral way of describing this difference between their culture and ours would be to say that we have a discourse form structured in terms of battle and they have one structured in terms of dance

This is an example of what it means for a metaphorical concept, namely, ARGUMENT IS WAR, to structure (at least in part) what we do and how we understand what we are doing when we argue. The essence of metaphor is understanding and experiencing one kind of thing in terms of another. It is not that arguments are a subspecies of war. Arguments and wars are different kinds of things verbal discourse and armed conflict-and the actions performed are different kinds of actions. But ARGUMENT 1S partially structured, understood, performed, and talked about in terms of WAR. The concept is metaphorically structured, the activity is metaphorically structured, and, consequently, the language is metaphorically structured. Moreover, this is the ordinary way of having an argument and talking about one. The normal way for us to talk about attacking a position is to use the words “attack a position.” Our conventional ways of talking about arguments presuppose a metaphor we are hardly ever conscious of. The metaphor is not merely in the words we use-it is in our very concept of an argument. The language of argument is not poetic, fanciful,
or rhetorical; it is literal. We talk about arguments that way because we conceive of them that way-and we act according to the way we conceive of things.

The most important claim we have made so far is that metaphor is not just a matter of language, that is, of mere words. We shall argue that, on the contrary, human thought processes are largely metaphorical. This is what we mean when we say that the human conceptual system is metaphorically structured and defined. Metaphors as linguistic expressions are possible precisely because there are metaphors in a person’s
conceptual system. Therefore, whenever in this book we speak of metaphors, such as ARGUMENT IS WAR, it should be understood that metaphor means metaphorical concept.

Lakoff, G., & Johnson, M. (1980). Metaphors we live by. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

My Powerful Journey (Final Journal)

I realise that within the limited time, it is difficult for me to have the comprehensive understanding of the concept of curriculum. However, within the short time, this curricula unit provides the new illumination on my perspectives of curriculum. Since, I came at SMEC, I comprehend that becoming a teacher is a great work which could making changes in the society throughout empowerment the young generations to be active citizens. Furthermore, the learning journey throughout the integrative journals enthuse me not only to think critically on the issues, but also think reflectively on my own teaching practices. Back to my experiences as a learner, I realise that since I was a student’s


teacher, my lecturer just taught me in the curricula unit about the list of subject matters that I should teach to my students. I remember that one of the exams was doing the chemistry problems within the short time to know my capability to teach the content of chemistry. Since then, I never thought philosophies beyond the curriculum, influence factors on curriculum, or visions of curriculum. Throughout this journal I will depict my conceptual understanding on curriculum which implies on several images. The processes of these understandings liquefy me into the wave of altercation. My reflections throughout this journey stimulate me to be critically reflective, even though it will be the long-life learning process for me. Finally, the processes of envisioning my curriculum images encourage me to create my “dream world” which changes my perceptions on my role in curriculum. As a result, this final journal is not my end journal, but it is my start journey to move on and face the reality and bring my voices in country.


Source: Graham & Phelps (2003


The Precious Conceptual Understandings

This unit helps me much to change my views on curriculum in term of the metaphors that I apply, the boundaries of powerful factors, and the dialectical process to engage with the realities. At the first time, I just view curriculum as only the subject matter and planned activities that I used to apply in my classroom. I never realise that it is dangerous for me to shape most of my teaching practices under the metaphors curriculum as subject matter, cultural reproduction, and discrete concepts. Therefore, since I explore more the term of metaphors in curriculum, I understand that how the metaphors of curriculum could shape teachers’ pedagogy practices. According to Provenzo Jr., McCloskey, Kottkamp, and Cohn (1989), the metaphors provides opportunities for individuals to describe the differences between the expected and experiences, reflect the experiences into multiple meanings, and create new understanding. Moreover, even though, I also applied the meaningful learning experiences in the several contexts, but I never think to provoke my students to give active participation in the social reconstruction. Moreover, throughout this unit, I try to find the way how chemistry could encourage my students to get involve in the society.

Furthermore, before I learnt the curricula unit, I just thought that the curriculum is influenced by the political factor. Because, since I started to be a teacher, I just received the curriculum with the objectives, list of subjects, and assessments type which direct me to finish all of those things within the limited time. I view those things as the powerful factor of politic factor. The top-bottom approach of curriculum which is applied in my country only gives the limited space for teachers and students to participate in their curriculum role. But, my journey through curricula unit, reminds me that there are several factors influence the curriculum which is difficult to equally meet all demand of these factors (Fensham, 1988). I realize that under these entire factors restrain me as a teacher, but I believe that there are still more space for me as a teacher to facilitate my pedagogy under these factors, especially to empowering my students (Rahmawati, 2007a). According to Fensham (1988), teachers should “act as couriers” which bring science curriculum into their life. I will concern on empower my students as social agencies to participate in the better world without ignore their holistic as individual. I believe that every student is “an active initiator and reactor” for his or her environment (Marsh, 2000, p.215).

However, I realize that my changing views of curriculum contradict with the implementation of education system in my country which are shaped by the standardization and planned activities. It will be difficult and dilemmatic journey for me as an educator as well as a teacher educator to deal with this reality. Therefore, the dialectical thinking that I learnt throughout this unit helps me much to overcome this dilemma. I hope that the dialectical thinking will be the bridge for me to understanding different views of my curriculum role. Therefore, I also realize that I could not only use the metaphors under one camp, such as postmodernists. I should put my dialectical thinking to cooperate with my condition under the traditionalist and the empiricists camp which focus on subject matter and measurement. The measurement can be observed by the teachers such as academic achievement on their cognitive abilities on the knowledge of subject matter. Therefore, it is dangerous that if the teachers only use the metaphors which is curriculum as planned activities and subject matter, because the students’ imagination will be trapped (Leahy & Sweller, 2004).

Finally, I realize how valuable and powerful these all conceptual understanding that I get throughout this journey. Therefore, I hope that I could bring my voices to reconceptualize my curriculum in my pedagogical practices which not only influence me but also others in my education system.

The Critically Reflective Thinking

When I read the articles or books on critically reflective thinkers, I realize that it will be difficult for me to apply those levels of thinking. The long process of my education in my country discourages me to be critical and reflective students. Therefore, starting move on to be critical, reflective, and imaginative becomes though process for me. In the way to be critical, reflective, and imaginative thinkers, I try to engage with the learning process of this unit which helps me much to develop my thinking process. Furthermore, throughout the portfolio assessment in this unit, I found that the writing process encourages me to reflect on myself and engage my knowledge, perspectives, and dispositions into my teaching practices. According to Martin (2000), portfolio assessment provides the opportunity for the learners to perform their best abilities and understanding. In my opinion, the critically reflective thinking always shapes this unit in term of my own pedagogical practices as a learner and an educator and my curriculum vision. Furthermore, according to Bain, Ballantyne, Mills, and Lester (2002, p.10), “reflection is an intrinsically good and desirable aspect of professional development”. For example, writing the journals throughout this unit gives opportunities for me to think critically reflective in my own teaching practices. When I wrote the journal, I realise that I became a reproducer in the technical interest in most of my teaching practices who always used all of the instruments to facilitate my teaching and neglected my subject as “worth knowing” (Henderson & Kesson, 2004) and focused on controlling my students’ academic achievement (Grundy, 1987). Furthermore, the other powerful learning experience in this unit which stimulates me to think critically and reflectively in my own teaching practices is analysis the influenced factors in my curriculum. I tried to remember and analysis my journey as a learner and an educator under the influence of politics, economics, social, culture, and religion which relate to curriculum as content and subject matter. Therefore, I was likely to focus on a “product oriented curriculum” (Taylor & Williams, 1992, p.5). The learning experiences in this unit help me out to criticise those things and find out the powerful learning experiences for my students. Therefore, I am interested in building more learning processes as meaningful activities for my students (Grundy, 1987). For example, in my classroom, I could engage my students throughout the curriculum as experience and currere to create meaningful learning situation and communicate the concepts of chemistry using varied strategies, so that it will shape chemistry as interesting, meaningful, and useful subject for my students.

Furthermore, the most powerful step of critical reflective that I found in this journey is creating my own curriculum vision and enrich it with the other concepts of regressive curriculum. The integration concepts of my curriculum visions on the idea of eco-justice, social justice, democracy, community, and agenda for social reconstruction will help my students to active participate in the reconstruction of society. Furthermore, the journey from the envisioning curriculum to the regressive curriculum gives me space to deal with the reality in my teaching practices. For example, the idea of sustainability could be applied in my teaching practices on green chemistry concepts to empower my students to sustain the environment. According to Chambers & Rowell (2007), environmental issues topics in science curricula could promote the students’ awareness of the social, economic and political dimensions in the society. Therefore, now, I become more concern on the other ways I that I could apply in my pedagogical practices. According to Woods (1996, p.127), “students’ empowerment through emancipating them from ideologies and discriminatory practices” is the aim of critical pedagogy. This process will help students to develop their capacity to struggle in their lives (Lovat & Smith, 1998).

Moreover, the other example of my journey on think reflectively is evaluating and analyzing the education policies in my country such as implementation of curriculum integration and Outcomes Based Education (OBE) which need to be concerned on the level of applications. Exploring these concepts help me to find the real philosophy beyond these concepts. For example, an integrated curriculum could help my learners to engage their learning experiences to understanding themselves as individual and social agent (Bean, 1995). Moreover, it also gives opportunities for the students to realize the variety of situations in which they could apply science for real-life purposes which making their learning personal and meaningful (Columba, 2007; Martin, 2000). I realise that transformational OBE will equip the students with knowledge, competence, and orientations for success after leaving the school. Therefore, transformational OBE is future-driven outcomes for the students which giving the schools to restructuring themselves. Through this unit, I hope that I could bring my voices related to the implementation of these ideas in my education system.

Furthermore, I believe that this process is not only useful for me as an educator but also for my students. Therefore, I really encourage myself and other teachers to be aware of the role of educators to empower students as critical, reflective, and imaginative thinkers which not only shapes the learners as individual, but also as agency for social reconstruction.

The Impact of Envisioning

Since I create my envisioning, I always think the ways how my multidimensional curriculum images are applied in my pedagogical practices to shape my students as holistic thinkers. I realise how powerful those idea to shape and empower my teaching practices. According to Henderson & Kesson (2004, p.2), “curriculum envisioning involves both personal soul searching and discerning social criticism”. Therefore, I found, the essential transformation for me in this envisioning process is encouraging myself to be critical reflective teacher who is aware of the importance of the meaningful learning experiences, critical thinking, and students’ empowerment. Moreover, I never think that I could have opportunity to envisioning my own curriculum, in addition the creation of the graduate attributes as well as CLOs and ULOs for my university. These opportunities I found that really stimulate me to think critically and imaginative on my ideal world. Throughout these process, I found myself learn to bring my silent voiced which I found it is impossible to be heard. Furthermore, this envisioning gives me opportunities to escape from the boundaries which de-values my idealism as a teacher. I apprehend that the envisioning is a powerful step to empower me to do the improvement for others and myself. The envisioning through the several curriculum images empower my dream in empathic intelligence zone which is “based on the best contemporary theories of intellectual, emotional, aesthetic and social development” (Arnold, 2005, p.148). It favours a curriculum which cooperates with interpersonal relationships, development of self awareness, self development, engagement, and personal experiences. Emphatic intelligence will mobilize my teaching into the transformative learning which personalized experiences are central to deep learning (Rahmawati, 2007b). The deep learning will help my students understand that the learning is not only memorizing but also transforming their capability as individual.

Furthermore, throughout this envisioning, I realize that it is important for me to equip my students with the personal and social competence to shape them as holistic individuals. According to Fullan (2001), the personal competence involves self-awareness and self-regulation while the social competence involves motivation, emphaty, and social skills. Therefore, the powerful ideas of dynamic process, eco-justice, democracy, and integration curriculum will enrich my curriculum vision which could encourage my students as creative, imaginative, reflective and critical thinkers. These ideas are not only encourage individuals to equip self-awareness, self-reflection, and self-development but also active participation in their role-life performances for reconstruction the better world for the society (Rahmawati, 2007c). Furthermore, combining those ideas with the transformational OBE, the concepts of learning, and the philosophy of Pancasila provides the ideal graduates attributes in my university which could empower myself to have future visions in my role as an educator.

In conclusion, the learning experiences in this, not only encourage me to be reflective and critical thinkers, but also empower me to active participate in my society. Furthermore, the process challenges me to improve my pedagogical practices within creating the meaningful learning experiences and provoke my students to be aware of their role in the society. I hope that I could apply this powerful journey in my education system and deal with the challenges of reality in my country.

My Multi-Dimensional Curriculum Image and Course Learning Outcomes (CLO’s) (Journal Six)

My Multi-dimensional Curriculum Image

Throughout the tough journey in this unit, I could see my curriculum images are shaped. I found that my curriculum images have three basic principles which are meaningful learning experiences, emphatic intelligences, and active citizenship. Three of these principles are engaged into the process, as described in this picture:

Picture 1. My Multidimensional Curriculum

Since I realised most of my teaching practices was shaped by technical interest which is meaningless and controlling students’ achievement, I more explore how to create the meaningful learning experiences for my students. Throughout this unit I found that engaging students with their own experiences will be powerful to create the meaningful learning experiences. According to Garder (2000) as cited in Schirduan & Case (2004), crystallizing the experiences is the most important moment in child’s education which engages the curiosity and stimulates further exploration. Moreover, integrating these experiences with the image of curriculum as currere in the classroom could give opportunities for my students to reflect, reconceptualise, explore and transform their personal experiences (Doll, 2002; Schubert 1986; Ornstein & Hunkins, 2004; Print, 1993; Lovat & Smith, 1993). In short, curriculum as currere provides opportunities for students to engage in the teaching and learning process within their living experiences. As a result, students could use their autobiography to evaluate their experiences, think about future, analysis both past and future, and create the people that they want to be. Without ignore the real condition of curriculum implementation in my education system which is curriculum as subject matter and planned activities, I struggle to involve my creativity to engage the curriculum as subject matter to create evocative learning experiences for my students. Besides, I agree that when my students perform well performances or achieve good marks do not means “they are becoming good human beings (Henderson & Kesson, 2004, p.93). Therefore, I do not want to be trapped under the “raised standards” of students’ competencies which is given by the powerful institutions. I consent that declining the power of “experts” which determine the content of curriculum will give me and students space for creativity (Apple, 1997). For example, I could choose one topic of science subject matter such as environmental science and relate this topic into their lived experiences such as investigating the environmental problems in their home could give the space for my students’ creativity and imagination. Furthermore, I found that the idea of curriculum dynamic through the curriculum matrix and the essential concept of curriculum integration will help me to engage my students to understand themselves and the world throughout the new knowledge and experience in their real lives.

Furthermore, throughout the curriculum, I would equip my students to have the integration of personal and social competencies which help them to participate in their role-life performances. According to Robertson & Gerber (2001), development children’s identity requires an understanding of themselves and social world. Therefore, I view my curriculum as organisms and curriculum as values to facilitate me to equip my students with these competencies. Throughout these images, it also helps me to see my students as individuals who have feeling, emotional, and intelligence which guide me to shape them as holistic individuals. Therefore, I favour to shape my curriculum which cooperates with interpersonal relationships, development of self awareness, self development, engagement, and personal experiences. I found the concepts of emphatic intelligence will mobilize my teaching into the transformative learning which personalized experiences are central to deep learning. I will apply the deep learning which could help my students to understand that the learning is not only memorizing but also transforming their capability as individual and social agents.

Finally, I hope that the multidimensional of my curriculum vision could shape my students to be active citizens. To be active citizenship, the students should have ability to engage with the social change and active solidarity (Ross, 2007). Moreover, I agree that it will be prevailing to teaching science by linking scientific ways of thinking with the advancement of democratic society, rather than simply treating science education as a subject matter which prepare students to have skills to critically analyse and change society (Longbottom & Butler, 1999). Furthermore, According to Aspin in Pascoe (2002) and Henderson (2001), promoting the values of moral, social, political, and aesthetic are the vital elements in education process for citizenship in democracy which develop the autonomous individual in the society.This process could help them to be initiators in the society development. Furthermore, I realize that the vision process could bring the learners to be aware of their role in the society after leaving the school. Therefore, it will be powerful to engage my students throughout the envisioning process of their “dream world” as well as my learning experiences in this unit. According to Robertson & Gerber ( 2001), it is important for the young generation to construct the positive image of the future which could affecting the future of society. Furthermore, throughout the integration the idea of environmental awareness, sustainability eco-justice, social justice, democracy, community, agenda for social reconstruction, and OBE in my curriculum vision, I hope that I could help my students to active participate in the reconstruction of society. Even though, these ideas seem ambiguous, but I believe that throughout my role in the education process, the powerful of these ideas will create the better world for my society.\

The Integration of My Graduate Attributes and CLOs

Related to the envisioning process, I found that my learning experiences to create the graduate attributes, then CLOs and ULOs encourage me to be brave to think out of the borderland of the systems. However, I found myself engaging my vision concepts with the reality of my professional practices in university which could help me to practice my dialectical thinking. Furthermore, throughout the integration of knowledge, values and spirituality, leadership, and practice outcome, I hope that I could empower my students to be the active participants in the society. In addition, I separate the leadership concepts because of the motto of my university is “Building the Future Leaders”, it doesn’t mean I am restricted by the available concepts, but I think that giving the space to dialect with this concept will help me to bring my voice in my university. According to Fullan (2001), becoming a leader should have the integration knowledge and skills on the value purpose, understanding change, developing knowledge, and coherence making. Therefore, I try to integrate the concepts of leadership with the values, spirituality, and knowledge and practice outcome into my CLOs. These four CLOs are explained by the several concepts:

1. Knowledge Outcome

Intelligence, intituition, motivation and creativity shape students’ knowledge within their life long learning

2. Values and Spirituality Outcome

Emphatic intelligence, spirituality, understanding, and awareness shape students’ learning process

3. Leadership Outcome

Emphatic, initiative, and creative future leaders shape their role-life performances in the society

4. Practice Outcome

Critical and creativity shape students’ practice on their field, technology, communication, and research skills

Throughout the meaningful learning experiences which are integrated in my curriculum vision, I hope that the process could empower my students to be life-long learners who have self-awareness to develop their knowledge within their lives and their roles in the society. Furthermore, since I found the importance of values and spirituality in education, I integrate these two concepts into my CLOs. I don’t want my students become individuals who do not have empathy with their communities. Moreover, even though the leadership outcome is one of the implementation of my dialectical process, but I could integrate this concept to help my students to be aware of their leadership roles in their lives after leaving the university. To be a leader doesn’t mean controlling others but also caring and constructing the society. Moreover, as individuals, my students are the leader for themselves who have to decide which ways they have to follow. Finally, the practice outcome will show their capability as professional individuals in their life-role performances. Then, these four competencies could shape the unit learning outcomes in my department.

Picture 2. Course Learning Outcomes (CLOs) and Graduate Attributes

The Unit Learning Outcomes

Teacher’s competencies is one of the units in university which I will deal with. Since, I will be the one who graduates from science education master course. My department will give me the responsibility to handle this unit. This unit has 3 SKS which means 150 minutes learning process a week in the classroom. It means, for one semester I will teach my students 32 meetings which give opportunities for me to shape my students to be competent chemistry teachers. Furthermore, this unit is given in the end of semester before they do the teaching field work in the school. Therefore, I try to combine the integrated competencies which could equip them in the real of teaching experiences. Moreover the ideas of knowledge base of teaching from Henniger (2004) which are the knowledge of content, teaching, curriculum, pedagogical content, learners, educational contexts, history and philosophy of education inspired me to integrate with the teacher’s competencies which are applied in my country (pedagogical, professional, and social competencies).

Furthermore, I try to explore this unit because of most of my students have less motivation to be a teacher (based on my experiences when taught them). Most of them chose the teacher education course because of they are not accepted in other program which is high competition and high requirement on academic achievement. Moreover, according to Banks (1989) as cited in Miller & Endo (2005), many research studies show that students choose the job as doctors and lawyers because the community tends to appreciate these kinds of jobs which are highly paid. Unfortunately, my university is the one public university in Jakarta which educates teacher educators. Therefore, my university plays important role to shape the professional teachers in my country. Moreover, there is no doubt that teacher profession plays important role to shape the young generation through education process. This profession also involves high responsibilities which not only transfer the knowledge to the students, but also supervising, caring, understanding, and emancipating. The importance and powerful teachers’ roles in the society encourage me to explore this unit, not only because of my role in this unit, but also stimulate my students to be aware on their roles as teachers and empower them to be critical and reflective teachers.

Although we need the intellectually capable teachers, but we need more teachers who have a culturally sensitive, compassionate, morally responsible teachers who are struggle to provide education which helps all children have access to descent and rewarding lives (Zeicher (1989) as cited in Groundwater-Smith S., Ewing, R. & Le Cornu, R. (2007).

Furthermore, In Indonesia, there is a new policy on professional teacher certification which assesses the teachers’ competencies. Teachers who could get the professional teacher certificate could get the high salary and other rewards (Sijabat on Jakarta Post, 2007). This certificate encourages the teachers in my country to develop their competencies which are divided into three competencies: pedagogical, professional, and social competencies which are described in my ULOs. According to Darling-Hammond (1996) as cited in Marsh (2000, p.10), “teacher education programs worldwide are now being restructured to include competencies and accreditation standards”. Even though, it doesn’t mean the best way to develop the teacher’s professional development, but I put my dialectical thinking on it. Furthermore, the learning experiences in this unit inspired me to stimulate my students

becoming reflective and critical teachers. According to Brookfield (1995) as cited in Marsh (2000), reflection is hopeful activity which is done in a spirit full of hope for the future.

Furthermore, the integrated concepts of curriculum are included in my ULOs to provide the awareness of developing curriculum which is relevant to the students and community. Moreover, I found the other ideas of curriculum images which could integrate in my curriculum perspectives are curriculum as opportunity, exploration, and empowerment (Stevenson, 1998) as cited in Marsh, 2000). Throughout the ideas of reflective teachers, teachers, teacher’s competencies, the nature of learning chemistry, curriculum, evaluation, and micro teaching practice, I hope that I could shape my students to be the critical and reflective teachers who could bring the better changes in my country. Finally, I realize that this creating this unit learning outcomes is one of my learning journeys which still need to be improved, but I found it helps me to learn and realize of my role as teacher’s educator who could give contribution on the improvement on chemistry teacher quality in my country.

Unit Learning Outcomes of Teacher’s Competencies

CLOs

ULOs

Description

CLOs 1,2,3

Topic One : Becoming Critical and Reflective Chemistry Teacher

ULO1 Conceptual understanding and creative, critical reflective thinking on the role of chemistry teacher within the challenging and dilemmas

ULO2 Conceptual understanding and creative, critical reflective thinking on the importance of being critical and reflective chemistry teacher

Student’s teachers understand and think critically on the important of being reflective and critical teachers who continuously evaluates their roles on the students, school, and society and seek out the opportunities to develop their professional practices.

CLOs 1,2,3,4

Topic Two : Chemistry Teacher’s Competencies

ULO3 Conceptual understanding and creative, critical reflective thinking on the pedagogical competencies of chemistry teacher

ULO4 Conceptual understanding and creative, critical reflective thinking on the professional competencies of chemistry teacher

ULO5 Conceptual understanding and creative, critical reflective thinking on the social competencies of chemistry teacher

Student’s teachers understand and think critically on the three teacher’s competencies which are required:

Pedagogical competencies: concepts of using varied instructional strategies, applying knowledge of effective verbal and non verbal communication, employ the classroom management, understanding the learners’ development and philosophy of teaching and learning.

Professional competencies: the central concepts of chemistry, tools of inquiry and structure of disciplines to create subject matter as meaningful learning experiences. Develop their professional career to give active participation in the society.

Social competencies: concepts of emphatic, caring, and understanding their learners and community.

CLOs 1,2,3,

Topic Three : The Nature of Learning Chemistry

ULO6 Conceptual understanding and creative, critical reflective thinking on the nature of chemistry

ULO7 Conceptual understanding and creative, critical reflective thinking on the nature of learning chemistry, the ways of knowing, learning environments, and learning in changing the world

Student’s teachers understand and think critically on how their learners learn chemistry and create the learning environments which encourage positive social interaction, active engagement, and self motivation. Creating the learning experiences which hold up learners’ intellectual, social, and personal development as their role performances in the society.

CLOs 1,2,3

Topic Four : Chemistry Teacher and Curriculum

ULO8 Conceptual understanding and creative, critical reflective thinking on the different curriculum images

ULO9 Conceptual understanding and creative, critical reflective thinking on the influence factors of curriculum

ULO10 Conceptual understanding and creative, critical reflective thinking on importance of dialectical thinking on curriculum role

Student’s teachers understand and think critically how the different images of curriculum shape their teaching practices and the several factors influence their role in curriculum. Empowerment their learners throughout the curriculum to be active citizens.

CLOs 1,2,3,4

Topic Five : Evaluating Teaching and Learning Chemistry

ULO11 Conceptual understanding and creative, critical reflective thinking on the evaluating students’ learning

ULO12 Conceptual understanding and creative, critical reflective thinking on the standardize and OBE assessment

Student’s teachers understand and think critically on the type of assessments which could influence students’ motivation and encourage them to achieve the successful in their lives throughout the outcomes based education. Student’s teachers think critically on the implementation both standardize assessments and outcomes based education.

CLOs 1,2,3,4

Topic Six : Micro Teaching

ULO13 Competent on teaching chemistry in the micro real class

Student’s teachers understand and think critically how to implement the teacher’s competencies in the classroom. This micro teaching practices is created as similar as the real classroom. The student’s teachers will accept the feedback from their colleagues and lecturer.

In conclusion, throughout this journal, I could find the essential concepts of my multidimensional curriculum which give me the new insight to improve my pedagogy practices. Furthermore, mapping my CLOs and ULOs in teacher competencies unit is also help to envision my contribution to develop my students’ skills to be chemistry educators who have motivation to be life-long learners, critical and reflective teachers.

My Curriculum Vision (Journal Five)

Reading through the articles in this journal stimulates me to think reflectively on my journey as a learner and an educator, not only on implementation of curriculum integration and Outcomes Based Education (OBE) in my country but also the envisioning of curriculum which is concerned in this unit. I realise that my government seems to try applying several excellent educational philosophies such as curriculum integration, OBE, and curriculum vision which need to be concerned on the level of applications. Through this unit, I hope that I could bring my voices related to the implementation of these ideas in my education system. Furthermore, I found the articles are related each other in terms of exploring learners’ experiences which not only to create the meaningful learning process but also to provoke them as an agent for society. Throughout this curriculum unit, I realise that the curriculum’s role is the bridge to shape the young generations who will have responsibility in the future. Furthermore, I bring the curriculum dynamic as the first reading to compose this journal, which I found as the main idea to envision my curriculum, then vision of curriculum, curriculum integration, and democratic curriculum. The third last articles, I found that having the specific ideas to envision the curriculum such as social-justice, eco-justice, and democracy.

Bringing the ideas of curriculum dynamics by Fleener (1999) which concern on changing the view of curriculum as “thing” to curriculum as “dynamic process” which influence the language games of schooling will be powerful for my curriculum vision. For long time, curriculum as thing influences my view of curriculum as subject matter, lesson plans, and objectives which isolated my learners in the boarder of standardisation. On the other hand, I realise that curriculum as dynamic process will involve the “logics of relationship, system, and meaning” (p.165), which could empower my learners to active in their learning process and their future life. In this article, Fleener reminds me that curriculum as dynamic process doesn’t mean simply change into the postmodern perspective which is process, meaning, value oriented and self organizing, but we have to changing “…the ways of seeing curriculum…[ and] re-examining the teachers, principals, and administrators in schools” (p.174). The ideas become more prevailing when Fleener brings up the Doll’s idea on curriculum matrix which has role as a bridge to create curriculum as dynamic process. In the curriculum matrix, Doll shapes the curriculum with the several aspects which are Rich, Recursive, Relational, and Rigorious. Throughout the idea of richness, I could explore the curriculum into the depth meaning, which not only the meaning of several layers of ideas, but also the relationship between the ideas which giving the overall meaning. Furthermore, the idea of recursive which doesn’t mean the repletion of the ideas in the curriculum, I will help my students to involve the reflective, creative, and evaluative thinking in their learning process (p.168). Therefore, the recursive will influence learning as exploring the pattern not only the accumulation of information. Moreover, meaningful learning experiences could be realised by the concept of relations in the curriculum which involve the interaction of learners’ experiences in the classroom to create the meaning. The aspect of rigor will help my students to look different, creative, and challenging solutions through inquiry process. As a result, each aspect of curriculum matrix is potential for self-organisation, socioautonomy, and self similarity (p.173) which hold up curriculum as process.

Furthermore, Fleener’s idea on curriculum as learning organisation will shapes the dynamic process in my curriculum vision. Seeing curriculum as learning organisation will remind me that curriculum as medium the share the meaning and understanding in the school. As a result, curriculum will help my learners to find the meaning and transform their lives. Her idea on classroom as borderland which allows students to declare their diversity and different perspectives seems difficult for me to apply. But, this powerful idea could give different perspectives for my students and encourage them to think critically on others ideas. Compared to flatland, borderland provokes the curriculum matrix which the dynamic, new patterns, problems, and challenges will occur in the learning process. In conclusion, curriculum dynamic through the curriculum matrix help my students to understand themselves and engage in meaningful learning process. Through this view, I realise that curriculum becomes the very fundamental way to interrelate the school and the improvement of society.

The ideas of visions of curriculum, community, and science by Brickhouse and Kittleson (2006) which concern on employ science not only to understand the natural world but also to understand the cultural values, diversity, social justice and eco-justice remind me on the role of chemistry in the society. The relationship between science and science education, especially chemistry with environmental issues encourage me to relate it with the concepts of community, social justice, and eco-justice (p.191). I found that Brickhouse and Kittleson review three books which help them to envision the science curriculum which hold social justice and environmental sustainability. First, Doll’s and Gough’s idea on the importance of local values and practices to encounter the globalisation suggest “a transitional imaginary” which reject the homogenization of culture which implied by globalisation (p. 194).. In my country, the idea of globalization is very frightening because of the people seems incapable to face the impacts of globalization. Therefore, their vision on liberating the curriculum is interesting to be explored. The second author is Browers who points out education for justice and community. When he criticise the school which separates children from the community and local knowledge, I realise that I never think about it in my teaching process which concerns on teaching the local knowledge. But, I agree that teaching should become responsive with the ecological and local cultures to help students become socially aware, reflective, and transformational (Graham, 2007). However, Brickhouse and Kittleson critise his idea on teaching local knowledge will ignore students’ understanding on broader issues of science which related to communities. Therefore, I found that it will be more powerful to integrate between local and broader knowledge. In addition, Riley-Taylor’s idea on ecology, spirituality, and education which generate the idea of ecospiritual praxis that related to social justice empower me to explore more green chemistry approaches in my teaching practices. However, before I explore the negative effects of misguided science application in the real world, I would engage my students to have experience and become aware of the beautiful of the natural world is the essential step toward ecological responsibility (Graham, 2007). Furthermore, I will extend the idea not only for environmental sustainability, but also for eco-justice, social justice, eco-spiritual praxis and culture sustainability throughout my teaching approaches. This ecospiritual praxis has multilayer perspectives on deep ecology, ecofeminism, and postmodern theories which emphasise the value system, gender neutrality, and dynamic life. Therefore, I found her vision on eco-justice grounded on ecological perspectives. The challenge for me is how I bring education process to sustain the community which involves the human relationship, spirituality and nature.

Furthermore, compared to Browers and Riley-Taylor who strong oppositional on the role of science, I found the authors, Brickhouse and Kittleson concern on how to reshape science and science education to be improved and changed to serve social justice and eco-justice. The interesting idea is revealing science education to support the broad participation of science for sustainability the future (p.201). Science could be envisioned through the national policies which encourage the role of science and technology to promote ecological sustainability (p.203). They give some examples in teaching practices which inspire me to apply those into teaching chemistry. I agree that it is important to build up the schools which could make science accessible for everyone and equip young people to understand and participate in the development of science throughout the science curriculum. Furthermore, according to Donnelly (2004, p.777), there are three approaches to develop science curriculum which could give significant reform in science which are:

1. the attempt to base pupils’ learning of science on their personal interests and material and “cultural” environment

2. the attempt to enable pupils to make use of science, as practice and knowledge, in ways which have a potential vocational relevance

3. there are those more radical reformulations of the aims, and institutional and organizational practices, of science education, which propose its conversion to a species of political activism

These ideas are related to the authors in the ways of engaging students in their learning experiences and stimulate them to active participation in the society (sustainability, eco-justice, social justice, etc.). Moreover, the “outsiders” with their critical education could engage young people to have “strong reflexivity”. In conclusion, it is very powerful idea to envision the science which is “responsible for supporting the interests, goals, and needs of a diverse population” (p.204). Therefore, I as an educator should provide critical education for everyone and teach science and local knowledge which related to the ecological sustainability and science-related communities.

The idea of curriculum integration by Beane (1995) is powerful to apply in my curriculum vision which stimulates me to reflect on my teaching practices. I become realise that the curriculum integration is not simply integrating the several discipline knowledge into one topic or theme. The main idea is how I help my learners to engage their learning experiences to understanding themselves as individual and social agent. Therefore, curriculum integration will help me as en educator to equip my students with the skills of the ways of knowing and understanding which help them to create self and social meaning which is more than correlation between various disciplines. Furthermore, the curriculum integration breaks up the isolation between various disciplines and creates the critical, broad, and holistic perspectives for the students (Ducoffe, Tromley, & Tucker, 2006) which requires high-order thinking for making connection to understand the holistic ideas which helps students to engage in their learning process (Hatch & Smith, 2004).The problem is not in the useful of knowledge but how to help young people to find the self and social meaning by using the knowledge (p.2). Therefore, I should give the integration of learning experiences for the students which concern on the knowledge of the contemporary context of problems, interests, issues, and concerns. Furthermore, I agree that the idea of separate subject approach which collects the limited ideas by ignoring the real life purposes, isolates the young people into the standardised approaches, and serves the high status of knowledge. The implementation of curriculum integration could begin with the identifying the themes which related to the real life. Therefore, I could involve the idea of curriculum integration into my curriculum vision which implies on the new knowledge and experience in the real life to help my learners to understand themselves and the world.

The other idea by Beane (1998) on reclaiming a democratic purpose for education seems difficult to apply in my classroom. But, throughout the reading, I found that this idea could be the other way to help me and my students to be active citizens in the society, becaue teaching must involve an element of trust, and trust demands openness.. Bean also realises that the educators have to struggle under the influence of powerful factors, but he believes that democracy can be lived in the school throughout curriculum which engage into the hearts and mind of young people. According to Longbottom & Butler (1999), democracy provides the best mechanism for promoting rational change in society which allows all citizens to express their humanity by making choices about their own lives and their stand point in influencing the direction of society. Moreover, I found the idea of democracy involves the intelligent collaborative participation in the society to create individuals who are empathy on others’ welfare, diverse group of young people, (2) never insult the intelligence and capacity of young people, (3) threat students with dignity, (4) value of knowledge and experience of young people, (5) engage the important knowledge and organise those into meaningful experiences for young people, (6) not serve exclusive interests, (7) give opportunity to be criticised by young people to construct new meaning, (8) be reasonable and achievable, (9) stimulate young people to imagine the better world and how to make it, (10) serve the best interest of young people and democracy. According to Apple & Bean (1995) as cited in Bencze (2000), citizens in democracies diverse curricula which encourage the individuals to create the “meaning making” which requires them to construct their own knowledge. Refers to this idea, I should give my learners’ right to create their own thoughts and actions through the independent scientific investigations and innovations, such as science project on certain topics which related to their interests. Therefore, this idea could encourage individuals to be active citizens in the society (Kennedy, 2007). In conclusion, even though, it seems to be difficult, but I hope that I could bring the democracy in my teaching and learning to expand the history of democracy in my education system.

Through all the concepts on these articles above enrich the ideas of my curriculum visions. I found all the concepts hold up my curriculum visions. My curriculum visions under the emphatic intelligence zone imply interpersonal relationships, development of self awareness, self development, engagement, and personal experiences. Curriculum as experiences, currere, community, and agenda social reconstruction are the metaphors which I use to envision my utopia curriculum. Moreover, the concept of curriculum integration and curriculum dynamic will help me as educator to engage my students throughout the meaningful learning experiences. These concepts are related to the curriculum as experiences and currere in terms of own experiences, self-reflection, self-understanding, and reconceptualization. I believe that engage my students throughout their own experiences could help them to understand themselves as individual and social agent. I hope that my curriculum vision could shape my students to be active citizens. To be active citizenship, the students should have ability to engage with the social change and active solidarity (Ross, 2007). Therefore, I could apply some teaching strategies such as debate and discussion throughout the controversy issue to engage them with the social problem and encourage them to arguing and thinking critically with different perspectives. I agree that it will be prevailing to teaching science by linking scientific ways of thinking with the advancement of democratic society, rather than simply treating science education as a subject matter which prepare students to have skills to critically analyse and change society (Longbottom & Butler, 1999).Furthermore, the vision process brings the learners to be aware of their role in the society after leaving the school. Therefore, integration the idea of eco-justice, social justice, democracy, community, and agenda for social reconstruction will help them to active participate in the reconstruction of society. Even though, these ideas seem ambiguous, but I believe that throughout my role in the education process, the powerful of these ideas will create the better world for my society.

.


My Curriculum Visions: Emphatic intelligence zone

(Relationships, self awareness, self development, engagement, and experiences)

 

·         Experiences

·         Currere

·         Community

·         Agenda for social reconstruction

Curriculum dynamics

·         Dynamic process

·         Rich, Recursive, Relational, and Rigorous

·         Learning Organizations

 

Curriculum Visions

·         Environmental awareness

·         Sustainability

·         Eco-justice

·         Social Justice

 

 

Curriculum Integration

·         Self and Social Meaning

·         Experiences

·         Knowledge

 

Curriculum Democracy

·         Experiences& knowledge

·         Justice

·         Equity

·         Dignity

 

Furthermore, since two years ago, my government applies the Outcomes Based Education which needs to be improved in application. Even though, teachers are already trained, but they are still confusing when they face the curriculum and national examination which are still standardised. However, since I learnt the OBE at SMEC, I became realise that the philosophy beyond the OBE which is powerful to apply. I also try to examine and reflect on the implementation of OBE in my country. Therefore, this topic is very relevant to my teaching practices. I found that there are three basis of Outcomes Based Education (OBE) which are all students can learn and succeed, success breed success, and schools control the condition of success (Spady, 1991, p.67). Different from traditional and transitional OBE, the transformational OBE is focus on success for all which implies the clarity of focus on outcomes of significance, design from ultimate outcomes, emphasize high expectations for all to succeed, and provide expanded opportunity for learning success (p.70). Since I explore this article, I realise that my education system still imply the traditional OBE. I try to understand the principle of the transformational OBE which will be helpful for me to achieve the vision of my utopia. I realise that transformational OBE will equip the students with knowledge, competence, and orientations for success after leaving the school. Therefore, transformational OBE is future-driven outcomes for the students which giving the schools to restructuring themselves. I also concern on the second article which related to transformational OBE, “Choosing Outcomes of Significance”, Spady (1994) defines the “outcomes are high quality, culminating demonstrations of significant learning in context” (p.18). The demonstration in the transformational OBE requires “the highest degrees of ownerships, integration, synthesis, and functional application… [for] the complexity of real-life performance contexts. These performance roles are the major essential roles of students in the society after leaving the schools. Therefore, I use these life performance roles to envision the exit outcomes for graduates in my university which implies on transformational OBE. Furthermore, on the other article “We Need More Than Educentric Standard”, Spady (1995) criticises the idea of performance standard in the curriculum which use as standards for “good students and good teachers”. Standardisation doesn’t useless, but throughout the transformational OBE, standards are becoming rigorous and complex content for the future challenging and environment. In conclusion, transformational OBE is focus on the success for the students in the school as well as in the community. Therefore, the transformational OBE guide the students to be the competent future citizens.

Bringing the idea of transformational OBE gives the powerful vision for the graduate attributes in my university without ignore the Pancasila as the philosophy of my country. I combine the philosophy of Pancasila, the concept of learning and the idea of the life role performances under the transformational OBE.

Pancasila

 

1.      Belief in the one and only God (Ketuhanan yang Maha Esa)

 

2.      Just and civilized humanity (Kemanusiaan yang Adil dan Beradab)

 

3.      The unity of Indonesia (Persatuan Indonesia)

 

4.      Democracy guided by the inner wisdom in the unanimity arising out of deliberations amongst representatives (Kerakyatan yang Dipimpin oleh Hikmat Kebijaksanaan dalam Permusyawaratan/Perwakilan)

 

5.      Social justice for the whole of the people of Indonesia (Keadilan Sosial bagi Seluruh Rakyat Indonesia)

 

 

 

Transformational OBE (Equip the learners to succeed in the life-role performances), to be:

 

1.      Implementers and Performers

2.      Problem Finders and Solvers

3.      Planners and Designers

4.      Creators and Producers

5.      Learners and Thinkers

6.      Listeners and Communicators

7.      Teachers and Mentors

8.      Supporters and Contributors

9.      Team Members and Partners

10.  Leaders and Organizers

 

 

 

 

Aspects of Learning

 

1.      Cognitive

2.      Affective

3.      Behavioural

These ideas bring me up to envisioning the graduate attributes for my university. The main idea is shaping the students to become the active participants in the society through the learning process in university. The active participants which have several characteristics of graduate attributes:

A. Cognitive (Knowledge) (4,2,3,4,5,8)

1. Life long learners

Graduates utilize life long learning in their live through developing continuously their knowledge to extend their capacity as individual and social members.

2. Creative, critical, and reflective thinkers

Graduates demonstrate their creative, critical, and reflective thinking to analysis the perspectives and overcome the problems.

B. Affective (Value & Spirituality) (1,2,3,4,5,9)

1. Emphatic intelligent members

Graduates demonstrate the self awareness, reflection, engagement, dynamic, enthusiasm, intelligent caring, self development and others in the society.

2. Responsive social contributors

Graduates recognise, understand, responsive to social problems by examining the causes and finding the creative and innovative solutions.

3. Comprehensive spirituality members

Graduates reveal the comprehensive understanding of spiritually throughout the emphatic implementation in society.

4. Receptive diversity participators

Graduates aware and understand of the diversity in the society by active participating to sustain the nation’s unity.

C. Behavioural (Practice) (2,1,2,6,7,10)

1. Professional practitioners

Graduates apply their skills and knowledge and advance their perspectives to carry out the responsibility in their life roles.

2. Competent and emphatic future leaders

Graduates demonstrate the capability as future leaders who are emphatic, initiative, and creative to cooperate and coordinate others.

3. Competent technology implementers

Graduates present the competencies of using and developing the technology to active participates in their role-life performances.

4. Skilled researchers

Graduates demonstrate their knowledge and skills in research throughout the inquiry approaches to participate in the reconstruction of society.

5. Effective communicators

Graduates demonstrate the capability to communicate effectively and bring their voices in the society with emphatic and appropriate language.

In conclusion, the ideas of dynamic process, eco-justice, democracy, and integration curriculum will enrich my utopia curriculum vision. These ideas are not only encourage individuals to equip self-awareness, self-reflection, and self-development but also active participation in their role-life performances for reconstruction the better world for the society. Furthermore, combining those ideas with the transformational OBE, the concepts of learning, and the philosophy of Pancasila provides the ideal graduates attributes in my university which could empower myself to have future visions in my role as an educator.

The Influence Factors Shaped Curriculum Images (Journal Three)

Welcome to the Jungle, Uwie!

I used to use these words if I come to the space with exciting experiences and many surprises. Like come to the jungle that sometimes, we will found surprising events. This happens on my journey join the curricula unit. Before, I came at SMEC, I just thought that curriculum is only the official document from the political power enforcement that I should follow. There is no choice, just involving the contents into my teaching, then the students could answer the questions in the national examination, pass the examination, and get good grades which showing that “you are the successful teacher, Uwie”. Since Peter and Bal use term of metaphors, images, hegemony, empowering, disempowering, politics, social, culture, economic, creative and imaginative thinkers, then related it into the curriculum, I just silent and think, Is it that complex? Is the curriculum that powerful?. Then, these processes stimulate me to reflect on my experiences, me and curriculum, my students and curriculum, my government and curriculum. Where am I and who am I in the curriculum? Do I have power to shape my curriculum as powerful and meaningful tools?. I talked to myself, Welcome to the Jungle Uwie!, you will find your way…

Every time I start to write my journal, I felt uncomfortable. Thinking reflectively and critically is very difficult for me. My education system and family do not support the students to reflect critically. I used to follow the common rules and stay in my comfortable zone. Furthermore, my simple thinking about curriculum forces me to stay in comfortable zone. When I started to reflect on social, cultural, political, and economic factors that influence my curriculum and my students as imaginative thinkers, I have to force myself to go out of my comfort zone. In addition, I put the other factors on this journal which is religion. I cannot ignore this factor and include the religion under the culture factors. In my country, religion is different from culture. Moreover, because the aim of national education is shaping religious generations such as believes in God. It also part of Pancasila (Indonesian Constitution Framework,1945), puts belief in God as a highest priority in all aspects of life. Therefore, religion is part of my curriculum. It will be useful for me to integrate all these factors and reflect it into my own curriculum. As a result, I could learn from it and apply it in my country.

Since I was a student and then interact with curriculum. I just thought that the curriculum is influenced by the political factor. I remember that every time my country has a new education minister, the curriculum is changed. At the first time, my curriculum was very detailed which included the content, outcomes, type of assessments, and teaching strategies, leaving no room for teacher creativity. However, it changed, since last year into the curriculum based on the life skills which gives more space for the teachers to design, implement, and evaluate their teaching. Curriculum as a powerful text that under the political power and teacher could not change it, just deliver the content within the time. Also at this time, the focus of key political players turned in the direction to globalization. The government wants to prepare the young generation to compete in globalization. A government policy mandated including English in the primary school and science teachers also should teach science by English. It is very difficult for teachers and students, because they never use English as instructional language. According to Mitchell and Boyd (2001) “Globalization, we argue, is fundamentally changing the parameters of political deliberation throughout the industrialized world, raising the stakes for education policy and changing the ground rules for its adoption and implementation” (p.60). The policy forces the students to be the people who could fulfill social needs, not to be the one who they want to be as an individual. As a powerful group, which are the “curriculum experts” (Apple, 1997), are they really experts? I am questioning myself, even though I feel that the changes that always happened in my country show that politics is very powerful factor which influence the curriculum.

Furthermore, economics factors influence the curriculum in the way of economic systems. For example, efficiency and economics, in science teaching especially chemistry, because of the economics factor, the practical works in curriculum is reduced because it is expensive. The students didn’t do the practical work and they just did it through the e-learning. Through the e-learning, the students’ computer skills will be improved and the cost of practical works will be reduced. The problem is the students’ skills on practical works in chemistry become poor, because there is a disparity in their skills when using computer simulation against actual laboratory. Furthermore, it also related to the social factors the IT skills become the priority skills that students should have. It is because the employment gives more opportunity for the people with good computer skills. The problem is not all schools have the computer facility especially the private schools which have students who come from poor family. The difference between the poor students and the rich become wider. Moreover, in my country, the jobs in science and technology fields such as a doctor and engineer are appreciated, which means they are given high status (Fensham, 1988). As a result, time allocation for science and math in primary and high school is much than other subjects. The powerful of society influence that subject as “elite and important field” (Fensham, 1988, p.7). It also influence the parents to force their children choose science and engineering in the higher education.

Related to social and culture, in my country, it is clear that social and culture as a part of curriculum. My curriculum involved the value and culture since primary school. The students should know and apply the value and culture in their life. For example, respect to parents, family is important, women’s role in the family, and so on. The teachers should educate the students to follow the social and culture value. Furthermore, the religion is also powerful in term of my curriculum. According to Marsh (2000), Teachers’ behaviour, especially the language will influence students’ values and behaviour. In my curriculum, religion is one of the obligation subjects since primary school until university. Furthermore, some religion schools should involve the religion into other subjects such as science. For example, the ethical issues in science such as euthanasia. Even though, it is still an ethical debate, but it is not allowed in the religion, as a result, there is no debate in term of these topics, because of the religion power. Therefore, students’ ability to weigh moral issues and make moral judgments is restrained in the classroom.

My journey through curricula unit, reminds me that there are several factors influence the curriculum. Even though, I prefer to choose these entire factors overlap each other. It also difficult to equally met all demand of these factors (Fensham, 1988). I realize that under these entire factors restrain me as a teacher, but I believe that there are still more space for me as a teacher to facilitate my pedagogy under these factors, especially to empowering my students as imaginative thinkers. Imaginative thinking is important, because of exploring the reality to solve problems in life and think critically need the imagination thinking. I agree that imaginative thinking could give power to transcend as a human (Young, 2003). Therefore, it is dangerous that if the teachers only use the metaphors which are curriculum as planned activities and subject matter, because the students’ imagination will be trapped (Leahy & Sweller, 2004).

Since I came at SMEC, I realize that the vision that I learn from every unit is different from the reality that I have in my country. Therefore, I prefer to choose the dialectical thinking as a part of my role in curriculum. Under the influence of politics, economics, social, culture, and religion which relate to curriculum as content and subject matter, I will use that content as a tool to empower my students as imaginative thinkers. For example, I could use the teaching strategies which could develop their imagination, through constructivist and metacognition approaches. According to Fensham (1988), teachers should “act as couriers” which bring science curriculum into their life. I will concern on empower my students as social agencies to participate in the better world without ignore their holistic as individual. I believe that every student is “an active initiator and reactor” for his or her environment (Marsh, 2000, p.215). My students could use their experiences to relate it with the subjects. It is important to empower my students to dialogue with their experiences (Pinar & Reynolds, 1992). However, I also need to explore “my students’ motivations and feelings about learning as important as the content of learning” (Arnold, 2005, p.19). Moreover, according to Apple (1997), we need work together with other groups such as decision makers to balance the influence from social, political, and economical factors. It is because I realize that the decision makers are able “to make specific decisions about what is to be taught, when, how and to whom” (Marsh, 2000, p.361). Therefore, I hope that as a teacher, I could bring voices to my society.

In conclusion, I realize that the influence of politics, economics, social, culture, and religion factors shapes my curriculum practices which restrains me as a teacher under the metaphors curriculum as content, subject matter, and cultural reproduction. However, I don’t want to be trapped in this condition, I will encourage myself to use my curriculum as a guiding to create meaningful learning experiences through there own experiences. Curriculum as a currere will be powerful metaphor for me to stimulate my learners as imaginative thinker who could participate for social reconstruction in my society.

Schubert’s and Pinar’s Curriculum Images (Journal Two)

A Free Radical

In chemistry, I learn that a free radical is very reactive which could empower other elements to form a new compound. The free radical can be useful, but it is also dangerous. For example, a free radical can initiate methane compound as fuel, but it also can initiate cancer compound. As a teacher, I really stimulate to be a free radical in the good ways for my students. Shaping my teaching as a meaningful learning process and motivating them to be critical and creative thinkers. Even though, I realize that I have to struggle under the restriction of curriculum, examination, and supervision. Journey at SMEC, in bottomless of my heart, I am questioning my self as an educator, could I shape my learners as a holistic human under the borderline of standardization? Could I construct the learners to be initiator agency in their society? Could I silhouette my character as a free radical?

In Curricula unit, I gain knowledge of curriculum metaphor by Schubert (1986) and Pinar (1975) and try to reflect my teaching practice via those metaphors. Schubert describes curriculum through eight metaphors which are: as content or subject matter, program of planned activities, learning outcomes, cultural reproduction, experience, discrete tasks and concepts, agenda for social reconstruction, and currere. Some of those curriculum images contradict each other, such as cultural reproduction and social reconstruction. On the other hand, experiences and currere are related each other. For example, learners reconceptualise their experiences into the learning process. These experiences are supposed to be their guide to develop their own future as individual, professional, and social agency. Furthermore, Pinar concerns on curriculum as currere which as a relation between knowledge, self-understanding, and social reconstruction (Pinar, 1975). On the other word, it focuses on reconceptualise one’s life experience related to social reconstruction. However, I see that both Shubert and Pinar’s work have relationship each other in several metaphors which are curriculum as curriculum learning outcomes, cultural reproduction, experience, agenda for social reconstruction, and currere. In my opinion, we could put our dialectical thinking to interact with those metaphors. For example, teachers could modify curriculum as content or subject matter into the meaningful learning experiences of the students. Another example in my condition, I could not only focus on agenda social reconstruction that ignores the image of subject matter. It is because I should realize that my education system still imply some standardize assessment which focus on the content. However, I can apply the meaningful learning process for my students through varied teaching strategies.

Furthermore, according Ornstein and Hunkins (2004), there are four theories camps which are traditionalist, empiricists, reconceptualists, and postmodernists. In my opinion, teacher could empower their students to be creative thinkers under the reconceptualists and postmodernists. Curriculum metaphors under these two camps are curriculum as experience, curriculum as understanding, curriculum as reconceptualising, curriculum as hybridizing, curriculum as evolving, and curriculum as (de/re)constructing. Through those two camps, I could use the approaches and develop the materials to engage the learners through their own experiences. Using students’ own experiences will be interesting for them. The approaches such as problem solving, posing questions, open-ended tasks, and constructivism-inspired activities can stimulate students to be creative thinkers (Manzo, 1998; Hudson, 1999; Jefferey & Craft, 2004). However, it is not possible fully to apply these approaches under the restricted image of curriculum as list of contents to help the students using their creativity to identify and explore the knowledge.

There is no doubt that creativity is important for students to cultivate their individual and societal agencies . As an individual agency, creativity can help them to solve problems in the real life, as societal agency, creativity can stimulate them to be a pioneers in development of society such as science, technology, and arts ( Sak, 2004; Cropley, 2006). “Creative thinkers seek the unique ideas and solutions, and they create the origin products” (Meador, 1999, p.324). Furthermore, “creativity is the interaction among aptitude, process, and environment by which an individual or groups produces a perceptible product that is both novel and useful as defined within a social context” (Beghetto, 2005, p. 255). Moreover, “teaching for creativity is defined as forms of teaching that are intended to develop young peoples own creative thinking or behaviour” (Jeffrey & Craft, 2004,p.74). Therefore, promoting students’ creativity is important in all education efforts. Nevertheless, those efforts are marginalized by the power on teacher and instructional time (Beghetto, 2005).

As a beginning teacher, I never gave the room for creativity of my students. Under the reasons of limited time, list of subject matter, and national examination, I treat my students as empty glasses which should fill by water. No matter, the glass is full or not, the water is useful or not. According to Beghetto (2005) and Sak, (2004), teacher should reward the students’ creativity in the classroom. As a result, the students could feel their creativity is accepted in the classroom. Even within restrict standardize of curriculum, teachers still have the room for creativity by helping students to express their novel ideas and develop those ideas in the different context (Beghetto, 2005). Furthermore, I realize that learning and behaviour change can be achieved by promoting the creative, holistic, institutive through discovery learning and students’ experiences (Weare, 2004). According to Arp & Woodard (2004), one of suggestion to transform the curriculum is create the learning as an individual learning trough discovery which is a process to stimulate students to think creatively.

Finally, through this second journal, I really encourage myself and other teachers to be aware of our role to empower students as creative thinkers. It is not only to shape our learners as individual, but also as agency for social reconstruction. Furthermore, trough this unit, I also realize that I could not only use the metaphors under one camp, such as postmodernists. I should put my dialectical thinking to cooperate with my condition under the traditionalist and the empiricists camp which focus on subject matter and measurement. The measurement which can be observed by the teachers such as academic achievement on their cognitive abilities on the knowledge of subject matter. Therefore, it could be a challenge for me as an educator when I am back to my country